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How does a smoke detector work?

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How does a smoke detector work?

A fire detector is one of the most important means of preventing fires. Its function is to generate an alarm when a large amount of smoke causes a fire. A home smoke detector consists of four parts: a sensor, a speaker, a battery unit (or connected to a wire), and a circuit board. (A backup battery is also required when the fire detector is connected to a household electrical wire.) At present, two types of sensors with high applicability are available in our country: one is an ion sensor, and the other is a photoelectric sensor.

Here is the content list:

l The working of the ion sensor

l How photoelectric sensors work

The working of the ion sensor

The ion sensor in the fire detector works by measuring the balance of positive and negative charges in the air. Inside the sensor, there is a small patch of radioactive material that generates a tiny electric current in the air flowing in the sensing chamber. On the circuit board, there is a computer chip that monitors this current. When the smoke particles enter the induction chamber, they disturb the balance of positive and negative charges there, and also change the current. As the smoke gradually increases, the imbalance of positive and negative charges will increase. When this balance exceeds a certain limit, the positive and negative charges will no longer be balanced, and the fire detector's horn will sound.

How photoelectric sensors work

The work of the photoelectric sensor in the fire detector is to measure the concentration of smoke through a beam of light and a light sensor. The device was designed so that the light beam was offset from the sensor. When smoke enters the sensing chamber, the smoke particles scatter part of the beam onto the sensor. As the concentration of smoke increases, more light beams are scattered onto the sensor. When the beam reaching the sensor reaches a certain level, the horn of the fire detector will sound.

Both types of sensors pass the Underwriters Laboratories test for home fire detectors, but their sensitivity to different types of smoke is different. The smoke-sensing fire detector realizes fire prevention by monitoring the concentration of smoke. When the smoke concentration exceeds the limit, the smoke-sensing fire detector generates an acousto-optic alarm and outputs an alarm signal. Smoke detectors are widely used in urban security, communities, factories, companies, schools, homes, villas, warehouses, resources, petroleum, chemical, gas transmission, distribution, and many other fields. Sensitive to smoke, so it prevents many fires!

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